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Duarte I, King of Portugal KG (Viseu, October 31 1391 - Tomar, September 13 1438) (pron. IPA [[[:Template:IPA]]]; Edward, in English), the Philosopher or the Eloquent, the 11th king of Portugal and Algarve and second Lord of Ceuta. He was the son of King João I of Portugal (John I of Portugal) and his wife, Philippa of Lancaster, a daughter of John of Gaunt.

As a prince, Edward (Duarte) always followed his father, King João I, in the affairs of the kingdom. He was knighted in 1415, after the Portuguese captured the city of Ceuta in North Africa, across from Gibraltar. He became king in 1433 when his father died of the plague and he soon showed interest in internal consensus. During his short reign of five years, Duarte called the Cortes (the national assembly) no less than five times to discuss internal affairs and politics. He also followed the politics of his father concerning the maritime exploration of Africa. He encouraged and financed his famous brother, Prince Henry the Navigator who founded a school of maritime navigation at Sagres and who initiated many expeditions. Among these, that of Gil Eanes in 1434 first rounded Cape Bojador on the NW coast of Africa, leading the way for further exploration southward along the African coast.

The colony at Ceuta rapidly became a drain on the Portuguese treasury and it was realised that without the city of Tangier, possession of Ceuta was worthless. When Ceuta was lost to the Portuguese, the camel caravans that were part of the overland trade routes began to use Tangier as their destination. This deprived Ceuta of the materials and goods that made it an attractive market and a vibrant trading locale, and it became an isolated community.


In 1437, his brothers, Henry (Henrique) and Fernando, persuaded Duarte to launch an attack on Morocco in order to get a better African base for future Atlantic exploration. The expedition was not unanimously supported: Pedro, Duke of Coimbra and Prince John, Duke of Aveiro were both against the initiative; they preferred to avoid conflict with the king of Morocco. They proved to be right. The resulting attack on Tangier was successful, but at a great cost of men. Duarte's youngest brother, Fernando, the Saint Prince was captured, kept as a hostage, and he died later in captivity in Fez. Duarte died soon after the Tangier attack of the plague, like his father and mother (and her mother) before him.

Another less political side of Duarte's personality is related to culture. A reflective and scholarly prince, he wrote the treatises O Leal Conselheiro (The Loyal Counsellor) and Livro Da Ensinanca De Bem Cavalgar Toda Sela (The Art of Riding on Every Saddle) as well as several poems. He was in the process of revising the Portuguese law code when he died.


Edward's ancestors in three generations
Edward of Portugal Father:
John I of Portugal
Father's father:
Peter I of Portugal
Father's father's father:
Afonso IV of Portugal
Father's father's mother:
Beatrice of Castile
Father's mother:
Teresa Lourenço
Father's mother's father:
Lourenço Martins
Father's mother's mother:
Sancha Martins
Philippa of Lancaster
Mother's father:
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Mother's father's father:
Edward III of England
Mother's father's mother:
Philippa of Hainault
Mother's mother:
Blanche of Lancaster
Mother's mother's father:
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Mother's mother's mother:
Isabel de Beaumont

Marriages and descendantsEdit

Duarte married Eleanor of Aragon, a daughter of Ferdinand I of Aragon and Leonor Urraca of Castile, in 1428.

By Eleanor of Aragon (Queen of Portugal) (c. 1402-February 19 1445); married on September 22 1428)
Prince JoãoOctober 1429b. August 14 1433Crown Prince of Portugal (1429-1433).
Infanta FilipaNovember 27 1430March 24 1439 
Afonso VJanuary 15 1432August 28 1481Who succeeded him as 12th King of Portugal.
Infanta MariaDecember 7 1432December 8 1432 
Infante FernandoNovember 17 1433September 18 1470Duke of Viseu and father of future king Manuel I.
Infanta LeonorSeptember 18 1434September 3 1467Married Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor.
Infante DuarteJuly 12 1435July 12 1435 
Infanta CatarinaNovember 26 1436June 17 1463 
Infanta JoanaMarch 31 1439June 13 1475Married King Henry IV of Castile.
By Joana Manuel de Vilhena (c. 1395-?)
João Manuelc. 14161476Natural son. Bishop of Guarda.
Preceded by:
John I
Kings of Portugal
Succeeded by:
Afonso V