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Prince Andrew
Duke of York
File:Duke of York.jpg
Spouse Sarah, Duchess of York (1986 – 1996)
Issue
Princess Beatrice of York
Princess Eugenie of York
Full name
Andrew Albert Christian Edward Mountbatten-Windsor
Titles
HRH The Duke of York
HRH The Prince Andrew
Royal House House of Windsor
Father Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Mother Elizabeth II
Born 19 February 1960
Buckingham Palace, London
Baptised 8 April 1960
Buckingham Palace, London
Occupation Government; prev. Military

The Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG, KCVO, ADC(P) (Andrew Albert Christian Edward Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 19 February 1960), is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Duke of York since 1986. The Duke of York is currently 4th in the line of succession, and has been since the birth of Prince Harry in 1984.

The Duke of York married and subsequently divorced Sarah Ferguson. He also served in the Royal Navy, seeing action in the Falklands War aboard HMS Invincible. He currently serves as the United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment.

Early lifeEdit

Andrew was born on 19 February 1960 in the Belgian Suite of Buckingham Palace, London. His mother is the reigning British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, the eldest daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. His father is Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the eldest son of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg. Prince Andrew was named after his paternal grandfather.

The Prince was baptised, in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace, on 8 April 1960, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Geoffrey Fisher and his godparents were: the Duke of Gloucester, Princess Alexandra, Lord Elphinstone, the Earl of Euston and Georgina, Lady Kennard.

Andrew was the first child born to a reigning British monarch since Queen Victoria's youngest child, The Princess Beatrice, in 1857. As a child of the reigning monarch, he was styled His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew from birth.

EducationEdit

The Prince Andrew received his early education at home, before attending Heatherdown Preparatory School, near Ascot, Berkshire. In September 1973, he followed his father, The Duke of Edinburgh, and his elder brother, HRH Prince of Wales, to Gordonstoun, in Morayshire, Scotland. From January to June 1977, Prince Andrew went on an exchange programme to Lakefield College School, Ontario, Canada. He left Gordonstoun in July 1979 with A-levels in English, history and economics, and political science. Unlike his brothers, Prince Andrew did not attend university.

Military ServiceEdit

Joined Royal Navy (1979)Edit

In November 1978 it was announced that Prince Andrew intended joining the Royal Navy in the following year. In December he underwent various sporting tests and examinations at the RAF Officers' Selection Centre, RAF Biggin Hill. Further tests and interviews were conducted at HMS Daedalus, Lee-on-Solent, and interviews at the Admiralty Interview Board, HMS Sultan. In March and April 1979 he was with the Britannia Royal Naval College Flight, and underwent pilot grading. He was accepted as a trainee helicopter pilot and signed on for 12 years from 11 May 1979. Template:British Royal Family Prince Andrew was appointed a Midshipman on 1 September 1979 and entered Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth on 12 September. He also undertook the Royal Marine 'Green Beret' course during 1980.

After passing out of Dartmouth, Prince Andrew went on to elementary flying training with the Royal Air Force at RAF Leeming, Yorkshire, and later basic flying training with the Royal Navy at Royal Naval Air Station (RNAS) Culdrose, Cornwall, where he learned to fly the Gazelle helicopter.

Prince Andrew later converted onto the Sea King helicopter and conducting operational flying training. In 1982, he joined his first front-line unit 820 Naval Air Squadron, serving aboard the aircraft carrier, HMS Invincible.

Falklands War (1982)Edit

In 2 April 1982 the British colony of the Falkland Islands was invaded by Argentina, an event that led to the Falklands War. Prince Andrew's ship, HMS Invincible was one of only two operational aircraft carriers available to the Royal Navy, and as such was to play a major role in the Royal Navy taskforce being assembled to sail south to retake the islands.

At first the British government were apprehensive of allowing Prince Andrew to remain on Invincible, and wished to move him to a desk job. The prospect of the son of the Queen being killed in action was a possibility, and the government wished to avoid such a circumstance. However, the Queen insisted that Prince Andrew be allowed to remain with his ship, and so he joined the Invincible as it sailed south, as a Sea King helicopter co-pilot.

Throughout the conflict Prince Andrew flew on various missions, including Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) and Anti-Surface Warfare search (ASUW), as well as acting as an Exocet missile decoy; a hitherto secret tactic which the Prince inadvertently revealed to journalists after the war.[citation needed] He also helped in casualty evacuation, transport and Search and Air Rescue (SAR). When the conflict ended, and Invincible returned to Portsmouth, the Queen and Prince Philip joined other families of the crew to welcome the vessel home.

The Prince remained with HMS Invincible, with brief assignments to the carrier HMS Illustrious, Culdrose, and the Joint Services School of Intelligence, Ashford, Kent, until 1983.

Career Naval Officer (1979-2001)Edit

File:Andrew Falklands War.jpg

In late 1983 Prince Andrew transferred to RNAS Portland and learned to fly the Lynx helicopter. On promotion to Lieutenant on 1st February 1984, The Queen appointed him a Personal Aide-de-camp.

Later service saw the Prince aboard HMS Brazen as Flight Pilot, 1984-1986 (including deployment to the Mediterranean as part of NAVOCFORMED).

In 1986 he undertook the Lieutenants' Greenwich Staff Course at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. On 23 October 1986 he transferred to the General List. He then did a four month helicopter warfare instructors' course at RNAS Yeovilton (HMS Heron), and served from February 1987 to April 1988 as a helicopter warfare officer in 702 Naval Air Squadron, HMS Osprey, HMS Portland.

He served on HMS Edinburgh as an Officer of the Watch and Assistant Navigating Officer 1988-1989, including a six month deployment as part of exercise Outback 88 to the Far East.

Prince Andrew, now the Duke of York, served as flight commander and pilot of the Lynx HAS3 of HMS Campbeltown 1989 to 1991. During this assignment he served as Force Aviation Officer to STANAVFORLANT when HMS Campbeltown was flagship of the NATO force in the North Atlantic 1990-1991.

Prince Andrew passed the squadron command examination on 16 July 1991. In 1992 he attended the Staff College Camberley and completed the army staff course.

He became a Lieutenant-Commander on 1 February 1992, and passed the ship command examination on 12 March 1992. Between 1993 and 1994, he commanded the Hunt Class Minehunter HMS Cottesmore, based at Portsmouth. Curiously, one of the officers of the ship was Sub-Lieutenant JW Gold, a Special Duties (commissioned from the ranks) electronic warfare officer. It is not clear whether this had any specific implications, however such highly specialised officers are usually deployed to major warships which contain a strategic intelligence suite, and his presence on a mine countermeasures vessel was unusual.

In 1995 and 1996 the Duke of York was Senior Pilot of 815 Naval Air Squadron, a unit with over 80 aircrew, 420 ground staff and 41 helicopters - the largest flying unit in the Fleet Air Arm. The main role of the Senior Pilot was to supervise flying standards to guarantee an effective operational capability.

Prince Andrew was made a Commander on 27 April 1999. He finished his naval career at the Ministry of Defence in London 1999 to 2001 as an officer of the Diplomatic Directorate of the Naval Staff.

He was released from the Active List of the Royal Navy in July 2001. In July 2005 he was promoted to Captain, Royal Navy. Unusually, although a former career officer, His Royal Highness was made an Honorary Captain, rather than given the substantive rank of Captain, as was traditional and might have been expected.

MarriageEdit

File:Duke of York with daughters.jpg

On 23 July 1986, Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson, the second daughter of the late Major Ronald Ferguson and his former wife, the late Susan (Mrs. Hector) Barrantes, at Westminster Abbey. On the occasion of his wedding, the Queen created him Duke of York, Earl of Inverness and Baron Killyleagh - titles previously held by both his maternal great-grandfather and grandfather, King George V and King George VI. Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson are close in age being only a few months apart. They had known each other since childhood and would meet occasionally at Polo matches, a sport in which both families took a keen interest in. They became re-acquainted with one another during the Ascot racing season of 1985.

Together the Duke and Duchess of York have two children:

DivorceEdit

Template:Unreferenced The Duke and Duchess of York appeared to have a happy marriage and presented a united front during the late 1980s. The Duchess was seen as a breath of fresh air to the stuffy royal protocol that was often reported as surrounding the Royal Family. However, underneath there were problems in the marriage, mainly relating to the fact that the Duke of York was away on Navy business at regular times during the year, and to the relentless media attention that focussed on the Duchess.

On 19 March 1992 the Duke and Duchess announced their plans to separate. It was an amicable parting and one made by the Duke and Duchess alone. Some months after their separation 1992, pictures of the Duchess appeared in the British tabloid press, showing her in compromising positions with her financial advisor, the American John Bryan. This effectively ended any hopes of reconciliation of the couple and did nothing to diminish the extent to which the Duchess was being targeted by the tabloid media.

The Duke and Duchess of York divorced in May 1996. Their divorce was amicable, and the two. It was stipulated that joint custody of the two princesses would be shared between the Duke and Duchess. The Duchess of York was no longer Her Royal Highness but instead became Sarah, Duchess of York. Their friendship has since been platonic, so much so that the Duchess lived on and off in the Duke's home at Sunninghill Park until 2004.

Romantic interestsEdit

Template:Unreferenced Prince Andrew has been romantically linked with women since his divorce. This follows from his reputation in his late teens and early twenties, when he earned a reputation as a playboy. His relationships with "unsuitable" women, such as model Vicky Hodge and particularly the actress/model Koo Stark, attracted unwanted media attention and gained him the nickname "Randy Andy". This has all been tabloid speculation, however, and frequently refuted by those close to the Duke.

Current roleEdit

Template:Unreferenced Template:Infobox hrhstyles Currently the Duke of York works for the Department of Trade and Industry as the United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment. He took over from Prince Edward, Duke of Kent in this role. The role involves the Duke representing the UK at various trade fairs and conferences all over the world.

The Duke is also a keen golfer and is Captain of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews. This is not without controversy and the Duke has been criticised for using the Queen's Flight for transport to various golfing functions.

Since 2004, Prince Andrew has lived at Royal Lodge, Windsor Great Park, the former country home of his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother. Prior to that he lived at Sunninghill Park. The Duke of York maintains an office at Buckingham Palace.

Titles, styles, honours and armsEdit

File:Prince Andrew arms.png

TitlesEdit

HonoursEdit

Military service recordEdit

Honorary military appointmentsEdit

He is Colonel-in-Chief of the following regiments:

He was also Colonel-in-Chief of these now disbanded regiments:

External linksEdit

Template:Start box |- ! colspan="3" style="background: #ccffcc;" | Peerage of the United Kingdom Template:Succession box |-style="text-align: center; background: #cccccc;" |align="center" colspan="3"|Other Offices Template:Succession box Template:Succession box |} Template:Dukes of York

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